HSE University Anti-Corruption Portal
Comparison of countries
USA
Panama
Indices
Overall Score:
69 out of 100
Rank:
24 out of 180
Rank:
1 out of 141
Overall Score:
68 out of 100
Overall Score:
0,70 out of 1
Rank:
26 out of 142
Overall Score:
83 out of 150
Rank:
77 out of 139
Overall Score:
8,81 out of 10
Rank:
6 out of 119
Overall Score:
36 out of 100
Rank:
101 out of 180
Overall Score:
5,39 out of 10
Rank:
18 out of 141
Overall Score:
0,51 out of 1
Rank:
74 out of 142
Overall Score:
100 out of 150
Rank:
41 out of 136
International Cooperation
UN
GRECO
OECD
G20
APEC
FATF
OAS
UN
OAS
USA
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2006.
  • The review under the second cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The executive summary is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 2000.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption is not ratified.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption is not ratified. 
  • The fifth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here
  • The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions was ratified in 1998.
  • The country is undergoing Phase 4 evaluation of the implementation of the Convention. The report is available here.
  • G20 Presidency in 2008 (Washington) and in 2009 (Pittsburg).
  • The documents adopted under the US Presidency are available here (Washington) and here (Pittsburg).
  • APEC’s member since 1989.
  • Member of the FATF since 1990.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
  • The Inter-American Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2000.
Panama
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2005.
  • The review under the second cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The executive summary is available here.
  • The Inter-American Convention against Corruption was ratified in 1998.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2012.
Main Legislation
USA
  1. 18 US Code: Chapter 11 - Bribery, Graft, and Conflicts of Interest, (English);

  2. 18 US Code: Chapter 31 – Embezzlement and theft, Section 666 – Theft or bribery concerning programs receiving Federal funds, (English);

  3. 5 US Code Appendix: Ethics in Government Act of 1978, (English);

  4. 5 Code of Federal Regulations: Chapter XVI – Office of Government Ethics, (English);

  5. 15 US Code, Anti-Bribery and Books and Records Provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, (English);

  6. 18 US Сode: Chapter 96 - Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations, (English);

  7. Section 5101 - Prohibition of Demand for Bribe, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2024, (English).

Panama

1. Criminal Code: Articles 254, 345-354, 364, 365
(Código Penal: Artículos 254, 345-354, 364, 365), (Spanish);

2. Law on the Careers of Civil Servants
(Por la cual se establece y regula la Carrera Administrativa), (Spanish);

3. Law on the Implementation of Article 299 of the Constitution and the Fight against Corruption in Public Authorities
(Que Reglamenta el Artículo 299 de la Constitución Política y Dicta otras Disposiciones contra la Corrupción Administrativa), (Spanish);

4. Law on Regulating Situations of Conflict of Interest in the Public Service
(Que Regula Situaciones de Conflicto de Intereses en la Función Pública), (Spanish);

5. Presidential Decree on a Unified Form for Declaration of Interests and Other Provisions
(Que adopta el Formulario Único de Declaración Jurada de intereses particulares y dicta otras disposiciones), (Spanish);

6. Uniform Code of Ethics for Public Officials
(Código Uniforme De Ética De Los Servidores Públicos), (Spanish);

7. Guidelines on Asset Declarations for Civil Servants
(Guía Básica sobre Declaración Jurada de Estado Patrimonial de Funcionarios Públicos), (Spanish).

Anti-Corruption Bodies
USA
  1. Department of Justice, (English);

  2. Securities and Exchange Commission, (English);

  3. Office of Government Ethics, (English);

  4. Interagency Ethics Council;

  5. Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency, (English).

Panama

1. Public Prosecutor's Office of Panama
(Ministerio Público de Panamá), (Spanish);

2. National Authority for Transparency and Access to Information
(Autoridad Nacional de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información), (Spanish).

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