HSE University Anti-Corruption Portal
Comparison of countries
Malaysia
Belgium
Indices
Overall Score:
50 out of 100
Rank:
57 out of 180
Rank:
39 out of 141
Overall Score:
47 out of 100
Overall Score:
0,57 out of 1
Rank:
55 out of 142
Overall Score:
6,86 out of 10
Rank:
47 out of 119
Overall Score:
73 out of 100
Rank:
16 out of 180
Rank:
26 out of 141
Overall Score:
0,78 out of 1
Rank:
16 out of 142
Overall Score:
59 out of 150
Rank:
121 out of 140
Overall Score:
7,31 out of 10
Rank:
35 out of 119
International Cooperation
UN
APEC
FATF
UN
GRECO
OECD
FATF
Malaysia
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2008.
  • The review under the second cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • APEC’s member since 1989.
  • Member of the FATF since 2016.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2011.
Belgium
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2008.
  • The review under the second cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 1999.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2004.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2007.
  • The fifth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here.
  • The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions was ratified in 1999.
  • The country is undergoing Phase 3 evaluation of the implementation of the Convention. The report is available here.
  • Member of the FATF since 1990.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
Main Legislation
Malaysia
  1. Act 574: Penal Code, Articles 161-165, 213-215, (Malay), (English);

  2. Act 5: Election Offences Act 1954: Part III, (Malay);

  3. Act 694: Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission Act 2009, (Malay), (English);

  4. Act 711: Whistleblower Protection Act 2010, (Malay), (English).

Belgium

1. Criminal Code: Articles 246-250, 504bis, 504ter
(Wetboek van Strafrecht: Art. 246-250, 504bis, 504ter), (Dutch);

2. Law of November 28, 2022 «On the Protection of Whistleblowers Reporting Breaches of Union or National Law Committed by Legal Persons in the Private Sector»
(Wet van 28 november 2022, betreffende de bescherming van melders van inbreuken op het Unie- of nationale recht vastgesteld binnen een juridische entiteit in de private sector), (Dutch);

3. Law of December 8, 2022 «On Disclosure Channels and Whistleblower Protection in the Federal Public Authorities and the Integrated Police»
(Wet van 8 december 2022, betreffende de meldingskanalen en de bescherming van de melders van integriteitsschendingen in de federale overheidsinstanties en bij de geïntegreerde politie), (Dutch);

4. Circular of May 5, 2014 «On the Management of Conflicts of Interest in Public Procurement: "Revolving Door"»
(Omzendbrief 5 mei 2014 - Overheidsopdrachten - Belangenvermenging – Draaideurconstructie), (Dutch);

5. The Code of Ethics for Federal Public Officials
(Deontologisch Kader), (Dutch).

 

Anti-Corruption Bodies
Malaysia
  1. Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, (English).

Belgium
  1. Central Bureau for Countering Corruption, Federal Police of Belgium
    (Office Central pour la Répression de la Corruption), (Dutch/French);
  2. Federal Prosecutor's Office
    (Federaal parket), (Dutch/French).

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