HSE University Anti-Corruption Portal
Comparison of countries
Spain
Moldova
Indices
Overall Score:
61 out of 100
Rank:
34 out of 180
Rank:
66 out of 133
Overall Score:
0,73 out of 1
Rank:
21 out of 139
Overall Score:
53 out of 100
Overall Score:
73 out of 150
Rank:
93 out of 136
Overall Score:
8,14 out of 10
Rank:
24 out of 116
Overall Score:
36 out of 100
Rank:
105 out of 180
Overall Score:
0,51 out of 1
Rank:
73 out of 139
Overall Score:
57 out of 100
Overall Score:
93 out of 150
Rank:
53 out of 136
Overall Score:
6,57 out of 10
Rank:
56 out of 116
International Cooperation
UN
GRECO
OECD
FATF
IACA
UN
GRECO
IACA
Spain
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2006.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 1999.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2010.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2009.
  • The fifth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here.
  • The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions was ratified in 2000.
  • The country is undergoing Phase 3 evaluation of the implementation of the Convention. The report is available here.
  • Member of the FATF since 1990.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2011.
Moldova
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2007.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 2001.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2004.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2004.
  • The fourth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2012.
Main Legislation
Spain
  1. Criminal Code: Articles 419-430, 439, 441, 442, Title XIII, Chapter XI, Section 4 – Corruption in Business, Articles 31bis-31 quinquies
    (Codigo Penal: Artículos 419-430, 439, 441, 442, Titulo XIII, Сapítulo XI, Sección 4  Delitos de corrupción en los negocios, Artículos 31bis-31 quinquies​), (Spanish);

  2. Law on Civil Service, Division III, Chapter VIII
    (Ley articulada de Funcionarios Civiles del Estado: Titulo III, Capitulo VIII), (Spanish);

  3. Organic Law of December 26, 1984 No. 53/1984 «On Restrictions on Civil Servants»
    (Ley Orgánica 53/84, de 26 de diciembre, de Incompatibilidades del personal al servicio de las Administraciones Públicas), (Spanish);

  4. Law of December 9, 2013 No. 19 «On Transparency and Free Access to Information»
    (Ley 19/2013, de 9 de diciembre, de transparencia, acceso a la información pública y buen gobierno), (Spanish);

  5. Law of March 30, 2015 «On the Duties of Persons Occupying Highest Positions in Public Administration»
    (Ley 3/2015, de 30 de marzo, reguladora del ejercicio del alto cargo de la Administración General del Estado), (Spanish).

Moldova
  1. Criminal Code: Articles 256, 324-327, 3301, 3302, 333-3351
    (Codul Penal: Articole 256, 324-327, 3301, 3302, 333-3351), (Romanian/Russian);

  2. Law of June 6, 2002 No. 1104 «On the National Anti-Corruption Centre»
    (Lege Nr. 1104 din 06.06.2002 cu privire la Centrul Naţional Anticorupţie), (Romanian/Russian);

  3. Law of February 22, 2008 No. 25 «On the Code of Conduct for Civil Servants»​
    (Lege Nr. 25 din 22.02.2008 privind Codul de conduită a funcţionarului public), (Romanian/Russian);

  4. Law of June 17, 2016 No. 133 «On declaration of assets and personal interests»
    (Lege Nr. 133 din 17.06.2016 privind declararea averii și a intereselor personale), (Romanian/Russian);

  5. Law of May 25, 2017 No. 82 «On Integrity»
    (Lege Nr. 82 din 25.05.2017 integrităţii), (Romanian/Russian).

Anti-Corruption Bodies
Spain
  1. Special Prosecutor’s Office for Countering Corruption and Organized Crime
    (Fiscalía Especial contra la Corrupción y el Crimen Organizado), (Spanish)

Moldova
  1. National Anti-Corruption Centre
    (Centrul Național Anticorupție), (Romanian/English);

  2. Anti-Corruption Prosecutor’s Office of the General Prosecutor’s Office
    (Parchetul Anticorupție al Parchetului General), (Romanian);

  3. National Integrity Authority
    (Autoritatea Națională de Integritate), (Romanian/Russian/English)

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