HSE University Anti-Corruption Portal
Comparison of countries
Spain
Belarus
Indices
Overall Score:
60 out of 100
Rank:
35 out of 180
Rank:
29 out of 141
Overall Score:
54 out of 100
Overall Score:
0,72 out of 1
Rank:
24 out of 142
Overall Score:
73 out of 150
Rank:
94 out of 135
Overall Score:
7,96 out of 10
Rank:
23 out of 114
Overall Score:
37 out of 100
Rank:
98 out of 180
Overall Score:
0,45 out of 1
Rank:
104 out of 142
Overall Score:
38 out of 150
Rank:
136 out of 139
International Cooperation
UN
GRECO
OECD
FATF
UN
GRECO
Spain
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2006.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 1999.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2010.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2009.
  • The fifth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here.
  • The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions was ratified in 2000.
  • The country is undergoing Phase 4 evaluation of the implementation of the Convention. The report is available here.
  • Member of the FATF since 1990.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2011.
Belarus
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2005.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The executive summary is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 2011 (representation limited as per the decision of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe of 17 March 2022).
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2007.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2006.
  • The fourth evaluation round is completed. The status of the evaluation report is confidential. The summary is available here.
Main Legislation
Spain
  1. Criminal Code: Articles 419-431, 439, 441, 442, Title XIII, Chapter XI, Section 4 – Corruption in Business, Articles 31bis-31quinquies
    (Codigo Penal: Artículos 419-431, 439, 441, 442, Titulo XIII, Сapítulo XI, Sección 4  Delitos de corrupción en los negocios, Artículos 31bis-31quinquies​), (Spanish);

  2. Law on Civil Service, Division III, Chapter VIII
    (Ley articulada de Funcionarios Civiles del Estado: Titulo III, Capitulo VIII), (Spanish);

  3. Organic Law of December 26, 1984 No. 53/1984 «On Restrictions on Part-Time Work on Civil Servants»
    (Ley Orgánica 53/84, de 26 de diciembre, de Incompatibilidades del personal al servicio de las Administraciones Públicas), (Spanish);

  4. Law of March 30, 2015 «On the Duties of Persons Occupying Highest Positions in Public Administration»
    (Ley 3/2015, de 30 de marzo, reguladora del ejercicio del alto cargo de la Administración General del Estado), (Spanish);

  5. Law of February 20, 2023 «On the Protection of Persons Who Report Regulatory Offences and the Fight against Corruption»
    (Ley 2/2023, de 20 de febrero, reguladora de la protección de las personas que informen sobre infracciones normativas y de lucha contra la corrupción), (Spanish).

Belarus
  1. Criminal Code: Articles 235, 252, 253, 396, 424, 429-433
    (Уголовный кодекс: статьи 235, 252, 253, 396, 424, 429-433​)(Russian);
  2. Code of Administrative Offences of the Republic of Belarus: Article 24.59
    (Кодекс Республики Беларусь об административных правонарушениях: статья 24.59​)(Russian);
  3. Law of the Republic of Belarus of July 15, 2015 No. 305-3 «On Combating Corruption»
    (Закон Республики Беларусь «О борьбе с коррупцией» от 15 июля 2015 года № 305-3), (Russian);
  4. Law of the Republic of Belarus of June 1, 2022 No. 175-З «On Civil Service»
    (Закон Республики Беларусь от 1 июня 2022 г. № 175-З «О государственной службе»), (Russian);
  5. Decree of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus of September 12, 2019 No. 619 «On Award and Other Compensations to Natural Persons Facilitating the Detection of Corruption»
    (Постановление Совета Министров Республики Беларусь от 5 февраля 2016 года № 101 «О выплате вознаграждения и других выплат физическому лицу, способствующему выявлению коррупции»), (Russian)
Anti-Corruption Bodies
Spain
  1. Special Prosecutor’s Office for Countering Corruption and Organized Crime
    (Fiscalía Especial contra la Corrupción y el Crimen Organizado), (Spanish);

  2. Office for Conflicts of Interest
    (Oficina de Conflictos de Intereses)(Spanish).

Belarus
  1. General Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Belarus, (Russian/English).

We use cookies in order to improve the quality and usability of the HSE website. More information about the use of cookies is available here, and the regulations on processing personal data can be found here. By continuing to use the site, you hereby confirm that you have been informed of the use of cookies by the HSE website and agree with our rules for processing personal data. You may disable cookies in your browser settings.