HSE University Anti-Corruption Portal
Comparison of countries
Singapore
Panama
Indices
Overall Score:
83 out of 100
Rank:
5 out of 180
Rank:
3 out of 141
Overall Score:
0,78 out of 1
Rank:
17 out of 142
Overall Score:
36 out of 100
Rank:
101 out of 180
Overall Score:
5,39 out of 10
Rank:
18 out of 141
Overall Score:
0,51 out of 1
Rank:
74 out of 142
Overall Score:
100 out of 150
Rank:
41 out of 136
International Cooperation
UN
APEC
FATF
UN
OAS
Singapore
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2009.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • APEC’s member since 1989.
  • Member of the FATF since 1992.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
Panama
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2005.
  • The review under the second cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The executive summary is available here.
  • The Inter-American Convention against Corruption was ratified in 1998.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2012.
Main Legislation
Singapore
  1. Penal Code (Chapter 224 of the 2008 Revised Edition of the Statutes of the Republic of Singapore): Articles 161-165, 168, 169, (English);

  2. Prevention of Corruption Act, Chapter 241 of the 2008 Revised Edition of the Statutes of the Republic of Singapore, (English);

  3. Corruption, Drug Trafficking and Other Serious Crimes (Confiscation of Benefits Act), Chapter 65a of the 2008 Revised Edition of the Statutes of the Republic of Singapore, (English).

Panama

1. Criminal Code: Articles 254, 345-354, 364, 365
(Código Penal: Artículos 254, 345-354, 364, 365), (Spanish);

2. Law on the Careers of Civil Servants
(Por la cual se establece y regula la Carrera Administrativa), (Spanish);

3. Law on the Implementation of Article 299 of the Constitution and the Fight against Corruption in Public Authorities
(Que Reglamenta el Artículo 299 de la Constitución Política y Dicta otras Disposiciones contra la Corrupción Administrativa), (Spanish);

4. Law on Regulating Situations of Conflict of Interest in the Public Service
(Que Regula Situaciones de Conflicto de Intereses en la Función Pública), (Spanish);

5. Presidential Decree on a Unified Form for Declaration of Interests and Other Provisions
(Que adopta el Formulario Único de Declaración Jurada de intereses particulares y dicta otras disposiciones), (Spanish);

6. Uniform Code of Ethics for Public Officials
(Código Uniforme De Ética De Los Servidores Públicos), (Spanish);

7. Guidelines on Asset Declarations for Civil Servants
(Guía Básica sobre Declaración Jurada de Estado Patrimonial de Funcionarios Públicos), (Spanish).

Anti-Corruption Bodies
Singapore
  1. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, (English).

Panama

1. Public Prosecutor's Office of Panama
(Ministerio Público de Panamá), (Spanish);

2. National Authority for Transparency and Access to Information
(Autoridad Nacional de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información), (Spanish).

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