HSE University Anti-Corruption Portal
Comparison of countries
Overall Score:
17 out of 100
172 out of 180
Overall Score:
0,36 out of 1
133 out of 140
Overall Score:
44 out of 100
Overall Score:
111 out of 150
24 out of 140
Overall Score:
4,43 out of 10
96 out of 119
Overall Score:
87 out of 100
2 out of 180
88 out of 141
Overall Score:
0,87 out of 1
3 out of 142
Overall Score:
105 out of 150
31 out of 140
Overall Score:
9,18 out of 10
3 out of 119
International Cooperation
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2006.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The executive summary is available here.
  • The Inter-American Convention against Corruption was ratified in 1999.
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was accepted in 2006.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 1999.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2002.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2001.
  • The fifth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here.
  • The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions was ratified in 1998.
  • The country is undergoing Phase 4 evaluation of the implementation of the Convention. The report is available here.
  • Member of the FATF since 1991.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2011.
Main Legislation

1. Constitution: Article 130
(Constitución: Artículo 130), (Spanish), (English);

2. Criminal Code: Articles 281, 282, 445-450, 452, 453, 454, 456-459
(Código Penal: Artículos 281, 282, 445-450, 452, 453, 454, 456-459), (Spanish);

3. Civil Service Probity Law
(Ley de Probidad de Los Servidores Públicos), (Spanish);

4. Law on Amendments to Law No. 735, Law on the Prevention, Investigation and Prosecution of Organised Crime and on the Administration of Seized, Confiscated and Abandoned Assets
(Ley de Reforma a la Ley N°. 735, Ley de Prevención, Investigación y Persecución del Crimen Organizado y de la Administración de los Bienes Incautados, Decomisados y Abandonados), (Spanish);

5. Code of Ethical Conduct for Civil Servants in the Executive Branch of Government
(Código de Conducta Ética de los Servidores Públicos del Poder Ejecutivo), (Spanish).

  1. Criminal Law: Chapter 16, Articles 13-14b, 18; Chapter 30, Articles 7-8a, 13; Chapter 32, Articles 6-10; Chapter 40, Articles 1-4a, 7, 8
    (Rikoslaki: Luku 16, § 13-14b, 18; Luku 30, § 7-8a, 13; Luku 32, § 6-10; Luku 40, § 1-4a, 7, 8), (Finnish/Swedish/English);

  2. Law of August 19, 1994 No. 750 «On Civil Service»
    (19.8.1994/750 Valtion virkamieslaki), (Finnish/Swedish);

  3. Law of December 20, 2022 No. 1171 «On the Protection of Whistleblowers Reporting Breaches of European Union and National Law»
    (1171/2022 Laki Euroopan unionin ja kansallisen oikeuden rikkomisesta ilmoittavien henkilöiden suojelusta)(Finnish);

  4. Code of Conduct for Officials
    (Virkamieseettinen toimintaohje)(Finnish/Swedish/English);

  5. Values in the Daily Job – Civil Servant’s Ethics. A handbook for the state administration»
    (Arvot Arjessa – Virkamiehen Etiikka. Valtionhallinnon Käsikirja), (Finnish), (English);

  6. Recommendations of the Ministry of Finance on Other Paid Activities of Officials
    (VM/561/00.00.00/2017 Virkamiesten sivutoimet)(Finnish);

  7. Recommendations of the Ministry of Finance on the Issues Regarding the Acceptance of Gifts, Offers of Hospitality and Other Benefits
    (VN/27196/2023 Vieraanvaraisuudesta, eduista ja lahjoista), (Finnish);

  8. Recommendations of the Ministry of Finances Regarding Cooling-Off Periods for Former Civil Servants
    (VM/1007/00.00.00/2012 Ohje virkamiehen siirtyessä toisen työnantajan palvelukseen), (Finnish);

  9. Report of the Committee for Ethics in Civil Service, with recommendations, March 2014
    (Valtion virkamieseettisen toimikunnan raportti 3/2014), (Finnish).

Anti-Corruption Bodies

1. Attorney General of the Republic
(Fiscal General de la República), (Spanish).

  1. National Bureau of Investigation
    (Keskusrikospoliisi), (Finnish);

  2. National Prosecution Authority
    (Valtakunnansyyttäjänvirasto), (Finnish/English/Swedish);

  3. Ministry of Finance

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