HSE University Anti-Corruption Portal
Comparison of countries
Belgium
Albania
Indices
Overall Score:
73 out of 100
Rank:
18 out of 180
Rank:
26 out of 141
Overall Score:
0,78 out of 1
Rank:
16 out of 142
Overall Score:
59 out of 150
Rank:
119 out of 135
Overall Score:
7,78 out of 10
Rank:
25 out of 114
Overall Score:
37 out of 100
Rank:
98 out of 180
Overall Score:
52 out of 100
Overall Score:
0,48 out of 1
Rank:
91 out of 142
Overall Score:
127 out of 150
Rank:
6 out of 139
Overall Score:
7,00 out of 10
Rank:
45 out of 119
Rank:
123 out of 141
International Cooperation
UN
GRECO
OECD
FATF
UN
GRECO
Belgium
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2008.
  • The review under the second cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 1999.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2004.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2007.
  • The fifth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here.
  • The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions was ratified in 1999.
  • The country is undergoing Phase 3 evaluation of the implementation of the Convention. The report is available here.
  • Member of the FATF since 1990.
  • Evaluation Report on compliance with the FATF recommendations is available here.
Albania
  • The UN Convention against Corruption was ratified in 2006.
  • The review under the first cycle of the Implementation Review Mechanism is completed. The country report is available here.
  • GRECO’s member since 2001.
  • The Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2001.
  • The Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption was ratified in 2000.
  • The fourth evaluation round is completed. The evaluation report is available here.
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy as an International Organization was ratified in 2011.
Main Legislation
Belgium

1. Criminal Code: Articles 246-250, 504bis, 504ter
(Wetboek van Strafrecht: Art. 246-250, 504bis, 504ter), (Dutch);

2. Law of November 28, 2022 «On the Protection of Whistleblowers Reporting Breaches of Union or National Law Committed by Legal Persons in the Private Sector»
(Wet van 28 november 2022, betreffende de bescherming van melders van inbreuken op het Unie- of nationale recht vastgesteld binnen een juridische entiteit in de private sector), (Dutch);

3. Law of December 8, 2022 «On Disclosure Channels and Whistleblower Protection in the Federal Public Authorities and the Integrated Police»
(Wet van 8 december 2022, betreffende de meldingskanalen en de bescherming van de melders van integriteitsschendingen in de federale overheidsinstanties en bij de geïntegreerde politie), (Dutch);

4. Circular of May 5, 2014 «On the Management of Conflicts of Interest in Public Procurement: "Revolving Door"»
(Omzendbrief 5 mei 2014 - Overheidsopdrachten - Belangenvermenging – Draaideurconstructie), (Dutch);

5. The Code of Ethics for Federal Public Officials
(Deontologisch Kader), (Dutch).

 

Albania
  1. Criminal Code: Articles 164-164/b, 244-245/1, 248, 257-260, 287, 287/b, 319-319/e and 328/a
    (Kodi Penal: Nenet 164-164/b, 244-245/1, 248, 257-260, 287, 287/b, 319-319/e, 328/a), (Albanian - amended 2021), (English - amended 2017);
  2. Law No. 9049 of April 10, 2003 «On the Declaration of and Control over the Assets and Financial Obligations of Elected Persons and Other Public Officials»
    (Ligj Nr.9049, datë 10.4.2003 Për deklarimin dhe kontrollin e pasurive, të detyrimeve financiare të të zgjedhurve dhe të disa nëpunësve publikë), (Albanian);
  3. Law No. 9131 of September 8, 2003 «On the Rules of Ethics in Public Administration»
    (Ligj Nr.9131, datë 8.9.2003 Per rregullat e etikes ne administraten publike), (Albanian);
  4. Law No. 9367 of April 7, 2005 «On the Prevention of Conflicts of Interest in the Exercise of Public Functions»
    (Ligj Nr. 9367, datë 7.04.2005, Për parandalimin e konfliktit të interesave në ushtrimin e funksioneve publike),(Albanian), (English);
  5. Law No. 152/2013 of October 1, 2013 «On Civil Service»
    (Ligj Nr.152/2013, datë 1.10.2013 Për nëpunësin civil), (Albanian);
  6. Law No. 60/2016 of June 2, 2016 «On Whistleblowing and Whistleblower Protection»
    (Ligj Nr. 60/2016 Për Sinjalizimin Dhe Mbrojtjen E Sinjalizuesve), (Albanian).
Anti-Corruption Bodies
Belgium
  1. Central Bureau for Countering Corruption, Federal Police of Belgium
    (Office Central pour la Répression de la Corruption), (Dutch/French);
  2. Federal Prosecutor's Office
    (Federaal parket), (Dutch/French).
Albania
  1. Special Prosecutor's Office of Albania
    (Prokuroria e Posaçme), (Albanian);
  2. National Bureau of Investigation
    (Byroja Kombëtare e Hetimit), (Albanian);
  3. Specialized Courts Against Corruption and Organized Crime
    (Gjykata e Posaçme për Korrupsionin dhe Krimin e Organizuar), (Albanian);
  4. General Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Albania
    (Prokuroria e Përgjithshme), (Albanian);
  5. High Inspectorate of Declaration and Audit of Assets and Conflicts of Interest
    (Inspektoriati i Lartë i Deklarimit dhe Kontrollit të Pasurive dhe Konfliktit të Interesave), (Albanian), (English);
  6. Anti-Corruption Agency
    (Agjencia Kundër Korrupsionit), (Albanian);
  7. Agency for the Administration of Seized and Confiscated Assets
    (Agjencia e Administrimit të Pasurive të Sekuestruara dhe të Konfiskuara), (Albanian/English).
 

We use cookies in order to improve the quality and usability of the HSE website. More information about the use of cookies is available here, and the regulations on processing personal data can be found here. By continuing to use the site, you hereby confirm that you have been informed of the use of cookies by the HSE website and agree with our rules for processing personal data. You may disable cookies in your browser settings.